How to Live a Flourishing Life – Goal of Ancient Philosophy

Ancient Philosophy

While modern ethics is essentially concerned with which actions are right or wrong, ancient Greco-Romans conceived of ethics as the much broader inquiry into how to live a happy life – the pursuit of which they deemed to be a human being’s most important endeavor. But, a happy life can be pursued in different ways, depending on which concept of eudaimonia – the flourishing life – one adopts.

Though a flourishing life was the common goal, the major Hellenistic schools of philosophy differed on how to achieve such a life.


Ethics is one of the classical branches of philosophy, with the other ones being: aesthetics (concerned with beauty and art), epistemology (the study of how we know things), logic (dedicated to understanding reason), and metaphysics (to comprehend the nature of the world).

How to Be a Stoic: Using Ancient Philosophy to Live a Modern Life
How to Be a Stoic: Using Ancient Philosophy to Live a Modern Life
Massimo Pigliucci

The Power of Choice

Choice

Consider who you are. Above all, a human being, carrying no greater power than your own reasoned choice, which oversees all other things, and is free from any other master.

    Epictetus, from Discourses

Your hidden power is your ability to use reason and make choices, however limited or small.

What are the choices available to you, day after day? You might be surprised at how many there actually are. Are you taking advantage? Are you finding the positives?

The Daily Stoic


The Daily Stoic: 366 Meditations on Wisdom, Perseverance, and the Art of Living
Ryan Holiday

Background on Epictetus

What is the Origin and Meaning of “Agnosticism”?

For T.H. Huxley, who coined the term in 1869, agnosticsm was as demanding as any moral, philosophical, or religious creed. Rather than a creed, though, he saw it was a method realized through “the rigorous application of a single principle.”

He expressed it positively as: “Follow your reason as far as it will take you,” and negatively as: “Do not pretend that conclusions are certain which are not demonstrated or demonstrable.”

This principle runs through the Western tradition: from Socrates, via the Reformation and Enlightenment, to the axioms of modern science. Huxley called it the “agnostic faith.”

Buddhism Without Beliefs
Buddhism Without Beliefs: A Contemporary Guide to Awakening
Stephen Batchelor

Background on Stephen Batchelor

How Did Ancient People Use Calendars?

Oldest Calendars

The oldest ‘calendars‘ are vast archaeological sites that aligned posts or megaliths (giant stones) with the rising of the Sun or Moon on significant dates, such as the summer or winter solsticeThe earliest structures built as calendars seem to be designed to help calculate the solar and lunar months. Priest-astronomers used these. 

Prehistoric astronomers left no user manuals for their monuments – their uses had to be rediscovered by archaeoastronomersarchaeologists with knowledge of astronomy. 

Warren Field, Scotland, found in 2004, is the earliest site found so far. It tracks events some 10,000 years ago.

Development of Accurate Calendars

Calendar development was often driven by the need to fix religious festivals and observance, an impulse that continued with the formation of new religions such as Christianity and Islam. Both put astronomy to use in this way.

Arab astronomers and engineers were zealous in their pursuit of improved methods for keeping time so that daily prayers could be received by the devout at the right time.

Time-keeping on a larger scale was essential in scheduling religious festivals.

Lunar Calendars 

Time is naturally divided astronomically by the Earth’s orbit around the Sun (a year), the Earth’s rotation (a day) and the phases of the Moon. A lunar month (a full cycle from one new or full moon to the next is approximately 29 1/2 days. A year is 365 1/4 days.

Inconveniently, a year is 12.37 lunar months long. For early societies, a lunar month was a useful and countable period of time, one that could be easily observed and checked just by looking up at the night sky.

But if you use 12  lunar months as the basis of your year, the calendar will drift out of sync quite quickly. It will be a month out after only 3 years, and 6 months out after 18 years. To avoid this, an extra (intercalary) month has to be added every few years.

Egyptian Calendars

The ancient Egyptians began their year with the rising of Sirius (which they called Sopdet) above the horizon before sun rise.

  • System dates to c. 3000 BC.
  • Divided year into 365 days.
  • Used two different calendars.
  • Sirius, a stable star, and the brightest star in the night sky, was the basis for the Egyptian calendar.
  • Ptolemaic rulers depended on calendars.

Other cultures developed independent calendars, notably China and Mesoamerican (Central American) civilizations.

Chinese Yin-Yang Li Traditional Calendar

Origins of the Chinese calendar can be traced back to 14th century BC, though legend says it was invented in 2637 BC.

  • Literally ‘heaven-Earth’ calendar.
  • Used alongside imported calendars such as the Hindu calendar.
  • Used until 1912, when China officially adopted the Western Gregorian calendar.

How the World Works: Astronomy: From Plotting the Stars to Pulsars and Black Holes
How the World Works: Astronomy: From Plotting the Stars to Pulsars and Black Holes 

Anne Rooney

 

How is Our World Formed by Culture and Language?

Earth

Look Around You

Look out at your own present visual field. What you see before you is in the minutest detail framed and formed by culture and language – framed by cultural categories, seen in the light of theories formed by words colored by our feelings and evaluations. Our world is our own self-objectification.

Our Conscious Experience

It remains curiously difficult to recognize that we made it all up. We evolved the entire syllabus. We slowly evolved our own languages, our values, our systems of knowledge, our religions, and our worldviews. We evolved our own subjective consciousness, because the brightness, the consciousness, of conscious experience is a by-product of language.

After God: The Future of Religion
After God: The Future Of Religion
Don Cupitt

Background on Don Cupitt