What Is The Literary Role Of The Bible?


King James Bible

In our secular age, some might think it surprising how much interest there still is in the Bible, as the celebrations in 2011 for the 4th centenary (400 years) of the King James Version (KJV), sometimes referred to as the Authorized Version (AV), clearly showed. Even those who do not believe in Christianity continue to be fascinated by the Bible’s presence.

The Bible in Western Culture

For believers, the Bible is often seen as inspired by God and having a high level of authority in matters of belief and practice. For non-believers, the Bible is a central document of western culture – it continues to interest many readers as a collection of major literary works. The history of these works, and of how they have been disseminated and interpreted, is a central part of the history of western literature.

A History of the Bible
A History of the Bible: The Story of the World’s Most Influential Book

John Barton

How Does Authenticity Help Us Embrace Who We Are?


Embracing Who We Are

Authenticity is the daily practice of letting go of who we think we’re supposed to be, and embracing who we are.

When we choose authenticity we:

  • Cultivate the courage to  be imperfect, to set boundaries, and to allow ourselves to be vulnerable.
  • Exercise the compassion that comes from knowing that we are made of strengths and struggles.
  • Nurture the connection and sense of belonging that can only happen when we believe that we are enough.

Wholehearted Living

Authenticity demands wholehearted living and loving – even when it’s hard, even when we’re wrestling with the shame and fear of not being good enough, and especially when the joy is so intense we’re afraid to let ourselves feel it.

Mindfully practicing authenticity during our most soul-searching struggles is how we invite grace, joy, and gratitude into our lives.

The Gifts of Imperfection
The Gifts of Imperfection: Let Go of Who You Think You’re Supposed to Be and Embrace Who You Are 

Brene Brown

Who Were The Ancient Sumerians?


Sumerian History & Language

The Sumerians were a people of mysterious origins, who migrated south from the mountains in Turkey in prehistoric times and settled in the hot, fertile delta in Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Around 5000-4000 BC the Sumerians began to master flood control and irrigation and built walled settlements.

Cuneiform tablet

Sumerian stories, first passed on via oral traditions, come to us today as texts pressed on clay tablets that date from 2100 BC, near the end of their history. They recorded their myths in a phonetic script they invented, called cuneiform (“wedge-shaped”).

One of the the oldest written languages on earth, Sumerian became the scientific, sacred, ceremonial, and literary language for the Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, and many other surrounding cultures for centuries, despite the fact that, to become fluent, one had to master its separate dialects for men and women.

Importance of Sumer

For subsequent cultures, Sumerian – the language and culture – was admired as the equivalent of Greek in Roman society or Latin in medieval Europe. Sumerians encouraged this practice with stories of the glories of their rulers and gods. Conquerors of Sumer borrowed Sumerian stories in creating their own myths. The Bible itself indicates the importance of Sumer – Abraham and Sarah trace their lineage back to Ur, the last capital of Sumer, from which they migrated westward to Canaan (Genesis 11:26-13:12).


Ziggurat at Ur (artist’s rendering)

The Sumerians built ziggurats to replicate their cosmic mountain, complete with paradise, linking the heavens with humanity. Rising from the river delta, ziggurats were rectangular towers, stepped to look like a mountain, with trees and shrines at every level. At the peak, one or more temples were constructed with a main sanctuary and multiple side rooms with altars for making sacrifices.

The temples were lavishly decorated, with vividly colored mosaics and frescoes showing the whole range of life-giving community activities, including planting, harvesting, herding, and processions to temples. Beautiful flowers, guardian animals such as leopards and bulls, and mythical beasts such as eagles with lion heads and bulls with human faces, adorned porticoes and sanctuaries. These centers for ritual, towering above the deltas, grew to contain housing for the community’s priests, artists, engineers, scribes, and other tradespeople.

Sumerian Myths

Sumerian stories and art celebrated the goodness of ordinary life in ways we can still understand, depicted as activities of paradise. Their myths tell of gods enjoying sexual pleasure, making music, dancing, traveling about having adventures, and encouraging fertility of the land.

The Sumerians told their stories of creation and paradise as a preface to their stories of their many gods. The prefaces were a literary formula such as “once upon a time when…” or “in the beginning when God created…” These recitations established the way the world was at its best, as a contrast to the stories they told of disasters, conflicts, violence, and war. Sumer became the lost primordial culture of West Asia. By the time Genesis was written, the Sumerians’ myths had been adapted and edited through more than 1,000 years of history in Canaan, where Abraham and Sarah, the legendary immigrants from Sumer had migrated.

Saving Paradise
Saving Paradise

Rita Nakashima Brock
and Rebecca Ann Parker

The Virtue Of Tolerance

The peak of tolerance is most readily achieved by those who are not burdened with convictions.

…..Alexander Chase

Tolerance is a Virtue

Tolerance is a rare and important virtue. What underlies tolerance is the recognition that there is plenty of room in the world for alternatives to coexist, and that if one is offended by what others do, it is because one has let it get under one’s skin. We tolerate others best when we know how to tolerate ourselves – learning how to do so is one aim of the civilized life.

Tolerance vs Intolerance

Tolerance and its opposite, intolerance, are not or even invariably forms of acceptance or rejection respectively. One can tolerate a belief or a practice without accepting it oneself.

Meditations for the Humanist
Meditations for the Humanist: Ethics for a Secular Age

A.C. Grayling

How Can We Achieve Lasting Happiness?

Lasting Happiness

If you want happiness for an hour, take a nap. If you want happiness for a day, go fishing. If you want happiness for a year, inherit a fortune. If you want happiness for a lifetime, help somebody.

……— Chinese Proverb